Pathology is a medical discipline that investigates the origins, development, and effects of diseases. This field aims to diagnose diseases and understand their causes through the microscopic examination of tissues and laboratory tests. In this article, we will explore what pathology is, how it works, and its significance in healthcare.

Fundamentals of Pathology

Pathology is based on a broad scientific and clinical foundation to understand the origins and course of diseases. This discipline diagnoses diseases by examining structural and functional changes in tissues and cells. Pathologists examine samples obtained through procedures like biopsies and autopsies to diagnose diseases.

Types of Pathology

Pathology is generally divided into two main categories: surgical pathology and clinical pathology. Surgical pathology involves the examination of tissues obtained during surgical procedures, while clinical pathology involves the examination of tissue and cell samples in a laboratory setting. Additionally, there are subfields such as molecular pathology and cytopathology.

Applications of Pathology

Pathology plays a significant role in various medical fields. This discipline is used in cancer diagnosis, the diagnosis of infectious diseases, the evaluation of autoimmune diseases, and the examination of genetic disorders. Pathology is also frequently used as a tool in medical research.

Importance of Pathology

Pathology is crucial for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of diseases. The diagnostic and clinical expertise of pathologists enables patients to access appropriate treatment plans. Additionally, pathology research contributes to understanding the underlying mechanisms of diseases and developing new treatment methods.


Pathology is a critical medical discipline for understanding the origins and effects of diseases. This field enables the diagnosis of diseases and understanding of their causes through microscopic examination and laboratory tests. Therefore, pathology is an indispensable part of modern medicine and helps ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses and treatments.