Endoskopik Sinüs Cerrahisi (ESC)

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS)

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) is a modern medical procedure that uses a minimally invasive surgical technique to treat sinus and nasal problems. This method is performed using a special endoscope (a device with light and a camera) inserted through the nostrils. The primary goal of ESS is to treat blockages, infections, polyps, and other pathological conditions in the sinuses to facilitate easier breathing for the patient.

Features and Advantages of ESS

Minimally Invasive Technique: The endoscopic method allows the surgical procedure to be performed without making large incisions. This speeds up the patient’s recovery process and reduces the risk of complications.

Advanced Imaging Technology: During surgery, the endoscope and other imaging techniques (such as computed tomography) used provide the surgeon with detailed images of the sinuses and nasal cavity. This allows the surgeon to make more precise and accurate interventions.

Short Recovery Period: Due to its minimally invasive nature, patients recover faster and return to their daily activities more quickly compared to traditional open surgery.

Less Pain and Complications: ESS causes less pain and fewer complications compared to traditional methods. This ensures a more comfortable postoperative period for patients.

Stages of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS)

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) is a modern surgical technique used as a minimally invasive method in the treatment of sinus and nasal problems.

Stages of Surgery:

Preparation and Anesthesia

  • Patient Preparation: The patient undergoes a detailed examination before the surgery. The general health status of the patient is evaluated, and necessary tests are performed during this examination.
  • Anesthesia: The surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. The anesthesiologist determines the appropriate dose and method.

Surgical Planning

  • Imaging Techniques: Before the surgery, advanced imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to examine the structure of the sinuses and nasal cavity in detail.
  • Surgical Planning: Based on the obtained images, the surgeon plans the details of the surgery and determines which areas will be treated.

Surgical Procedure

  • Use of Endoscope: The surgeon inserts a thin endoscope (a device with light and a camera) through the nostrils to visually examine the internal structure of the sinuses. With the endoscope, the surgeon can follow detailed images of the sinuses and nasal cavity on the screen.
  • Use of Surgical Instruments: Polyps, infected tissues, or blockages in the sinuses are cleaned or opened using special surgical instruments (balloon, microdebrider, etc.). These instruments allow the surgical intervention to be performed in a minimally invasive manner.

Post-Surgery Applications

  • Tampons and Other Materials: After the surgery, special tampons and materials are placed inside the nose to prevent bleeding and tissue adhesion. These materials do not adversely affect breathing.
  • Initial Check-ups: The first check-ups after the surgery are performed by the surgeon. Tampons are usually removed the day after the surgery, and the inside of the nose is cleaned.

Recovery Process

  • Medication Use: The patient should regularly use the medications prescribed by the surgeon to alleviate pain and prevent infection.
  • Breathing and Cleaning: Nasal congestion may be experienced for the first 24-48 hours, during which mouth breathing may be necessary. The inside of the nose should be cleaned with sprays recommended by the doctor.
  • Check-ups and Dressing: Regular doctor check-ups should be attended throughout the recovery process. It is important not to skip dressings.

Complete Recovery

  • Recovery Period: The recovery period can range from 2 to 6 weeks, depending on the type of surgery and the general health status of the patient.
  • Return to Daily Life: Once recovery is complete, the patient can return to normal daily activities. However, it is important to follow the doctor’s recommendations regarding nasal care and cleaning.

Application Areas of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS)

ESS is used in the treatment of various sinus and nasal problems. Here are the common applications of this surgery:

Chronic Sinusitis

  • Definition: A condition characterized by the long-term inflammation of the sinuses.
  • Symptoms:
    • Prolonged nasal congestion
    • Facial pain or pressure
    • Persistent postnasal drip
    • Headache
    • Reduced sense of smell and taste
    • Cough
  • Treatment: Chronic sinusitis, which does not respond to medical treatment, is treated with ESS. During this procedure, blockages and infected tissues in the sinuses are cleaned.

Nasal Polyps

  • Definition: Benign growths that develop inside the nose and sinuses.
  • Symptoms:
    • Nasal congestion
    • Chronic nasal discharge
    • Symptoms similar to sinusitis
    • Reduced sense of smell
    • Mouth breathing
  • Treatment: The blockages and breathing difficulties caused by nasal polyps are treated by removing them through Endoscopic Nasal Polyp Surgery using the ESS method.

Sinus Tumors

  • Definition: Benign or malignant tumors that develop in the sinuses.
  • Symptoms:
    • Persistent nasal congestion
    • Nosebleeds
    • Swelling or pain in the face
    • Vision problems
    • Unilateral nasal discharge
  • Treatment: Sinus tumors can be treated by removing them with ESS. This method is determined based on the size and location of the tumor.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks

  • Definition: The leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose and sinuses.
  • Symptoms:
    • Continuous clear fluid discharge from the nose
    • Headache
    • Risk of meningitis
  • Treatment: ESS is an effective method for repairing such leaks. The leak area is identified and repaired using endoscopic techniques.

Nasolacrimal Duct Obstructions

  • Definition: A condition where the tear ducts are blocked, preventing proper tear drainage.
  • Symptoms:
    • Watery eyes
    • Redness and infection in the eyes
  • Treatment: The blockage in the tear duct is opened with ESS, restoring normal tear flow.

Pituitary Tumors

  • Definition: Tumors that develop in the pituitary gland.
  • Symptoms:
    • Vision problems
    • Hormonal imbalances
    • Headache
  • Treatment: These tumors can be removed using endoscopic surgical techniques through the nose.

Orbital and Optic Nerve Diseases

  • Definition: Diseases affecting the area around the eyes and the optic nerves.
  • Symptoms:
    • Vision loss
    • Eye pain and pressure
  • Treatment: Endoscopic surgery can be used to access the orbital area and relieve pressure on the optic nerves.

Thyroid Ophthalmopathy

  • Definition: Conditions around the eyes related to thyroid diseases.
  • Symptoms:
    • Swelling in the eyes
    • Double vision
    • Restricted eye movements
  • Treatment: ESS can be used to treat this condition.